Glossary

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Ebstein’s anomaly of the tricuspid valve
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Abnormal formation of the tricuspid valve with downward displacement of the root of the valve flap (or leaflet) into the right ventricle

ECG
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See electrocardiography

ECG at rest
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Electrocardiogram recorded while the patient is inactive

Echocardiography
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Ultrasonic examination of the heart

EEG
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Electroencephalography, test using electrodes to measure and record the electrical activity of the brain

Eisenmenger syndrome
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Late appearance of cyanosis in heart defects that were not originally cyanotic, e.g atrial or ventricular septum defect with severe pulmonary hypertension

Ejection fraction
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The fraction of blood volume that is expelled from a cardiac chamber during systole. This is normally above 65%

Electrocardiography
ECG

Electrical changes in the beating heart are received via electrodes attached to the thorax and recorded in what is known as an electrocardiogram

Electrodes
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Contact pads applied to the skin to conduct the electric currents present in the body (e.g. in ECG)

Electrophysiological examination
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A test to measure electrical signals in the heart. Electrodes are inserted into the heart by means of a special cardiac catheter; allows the electrical activity of the heart muscle to be determined and provides evidence for analysing cardiac arrhythmias and establishing the effectivity of an AICD system

Embolus
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Sudden obstruction of a blood vessel by a blood clot transported from one vessel and forced into a smaller one

Embryo
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An organism in its early stage of development (unborn foetus)

Endocardial cushion
also atrioventricular canal cushion

Special mounds of connective tissue that develop during the embryonic period; these later grow together to form the cardiac valves and the adjacent sections of atrial and ventricular septum

Endocardial cushion defects
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Developmental disorders of the endocardial cushion. Term summarising a spectrum of cardiac defects ranging from minor atrial septum defects up to complete AV canal defects

Endocarditis
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Inflammation of the endocardium. Usually caused by bacteria from the blood streamlodging in areas of unnatural blood turbulence, can. destroy damaged cardiac valves

Endocarditis prophylaxis
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It is recommended that patients with certain congenital or acquired heart defects be given a prophylactic course of antibiotics prior to surgery (e.g. dental treatment, tonsillectomy, abscess incision).

Endocardium
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Innermost layer of the heart wall, tissue lining the interior of the heart

Endothelium
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Thin layer of cells that lines cardiac cavities and blood vessels

Epicanthus
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Malformation of the upper eyelid

Epicardium
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The layer of pericardium in contact with the heart

Ergometry
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See Exercise ECG

Eugenics
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Historical term relating to the application of various forms of intervention to improve hereditary traits

Exercise ECG
cardiac stress test

Electrocardiogram recorded during specific multistage load tests while cycling or running on a treadmill

Extracardial
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Outside the heart

Extracorporeal circulation
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Standard procedure in modern cardiac surgery: a cardiopulmonary bypass pump (heart-lung machine) that temporarily takes over the function of the heart and lungs during surgery

Extrasystole
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A premature heartbeat that is independent of the normal rhythm
- supraventricular: impulse arising above the cardiac chambers, in the atrial area
- ventricular: impulse arising in the cardiac chambers

Author(s): Kinderherzstiftung, Prof. Dr. Elisabeth Sticker, Hermine Nock
Last updated: 2009-04-28